Intake valves are generally made of medium carbon alloy steel, such as chromium steel, chromium-molybdenum steel and nickel-chromium steel. The exhaust valve is made of heat-resistant alloy steel, such as silicon chromium steel, silicon chromium molybdenum steel, silicon chromium manganese steel, etc. The intake and exhaust valves of automobile engines are bacterium-shaped valves, consisting of two parts: the valve head and the valve stem. The top surface of the valve is available in flat, concave and convex roofs. At present, the most widely used is the flat top valve, which has a simple structure, convenient manufacturing, small heating area, and can be used in both intake and exhaust valves. Part of the heat received by the valve head is transferred to the cylinder head through the valve seat insert; The other part is also passed to the cylinder head via the valve stem and valve guide, which is eventually carried away by the coolant in the water jacket of the cylinder head.
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