Shafts with an aspect ratio of less than 5 are called minor axes, those greater than 20 are called slender shafts, and most axes fall somewhere in between. The shaft is supported by bearings, and the shaft segment that fits with the bearing is called a journal. The journal is the assembly benchmark of the shaft, and their accuracy and surface quality are generally high, and its technical requirements are generally formulated according to the main function and working conditions of the shaft. Shaft parts are one of the typical parts often encountered in hardware accessories, it is mainly used to support transmission parts, transmit torque and bear load, according to the different structural forms of shaft parts, generally can be divided into three categories: smooth shaft, stepped shaft and special-shaped shaft; Or divided into solid shafts, hollow shafts, etc.
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